|Clocktower clock, Maynard, MA|
Admire the clock faces on the Clocktower clock. On each, four o'clock is designated by a Roman numeral "IIII." Which begs the question, why not "IV?"
The best-supported answer is that Romans did not always use Roman numerals the way we do. We use a subtractive mode (IV instead of IIII, IX instead of VIIII), which became the standard in Europe long after the decline and fall of the
Roman Empire. IIII was used on
Roman era sundials, and appears to have been carried forward in time to Renaissance
Another theory is that IIII provides more visual symmetry for the clock face, with clock makers conforming to this practice by design. With IIII for four and VIII for eight, the two numbers opposing each other are of similar width. Jibing with this concept is the fact that the same clocks that do not use subtractive mode for four do use it for nine (IX), creating a closer visual match for III on the other side. Finally, using IIII means that the first third of the clock face has I's, the next third has V's and the final third has X's. Internet searching yields a few other explanations, but these two - tradition and symmetry - make the most sense.
Clock faces incorporate other traditions. When the Hindu-Arabic numbering system (1,2,3,4,5...) is used, all numbers are oriented to be top end up when the face is viewed vertically, but Roman numerals (I,II,III,IIII,V...) are oriented to be top end up from the viewpoint of the center of the face, facing outward. Was this to be radially symmetric or functional? Likely the latter, carried forward in time by tradition. Think of walking up to a sundial; with your back to the sun the shadow cast by the upright will be opposite you and the number it points to will be right side up.
Clock hands proceed clockwise. In the Northern hemisphere a horizontal sundial will have twelve o'clock oriented due north. As the sun's position in the sky shifts from east to south to west the shadow will move around the top arc of the face left to right. When mechanical clocks were perfected in
Europe the sundial's movement was mimicked
for its familiarity. Hence, the worldwide convention is clockwise. (It is
possible to buy novelty clocks that run counterclockwise.)
If sundials had spread to the rest of the world from the southern hemisphere then the sun's shadow would have proceeded across the top arc from right to left and mechanical clocks might well have followed that tradition to end up going the opposite direction of what we know accept. (Of course, this manner of movement would have been called "clockwise.")
The earliest mechanical clocks did not have hands or faces. In Catholic Europe, these devices were installed in church towers to automate ringing of bells meant to signify daily calls to prayer. Hours were signified by bells. Time was audible rather than visual.
|Clocktower clock face from inside the clock|
Time used to be local. Starting in the 1800s, problems were caused by railroads traveling so far in a day as to be servicing cities each maintaining its own local time. The solution, reached in 1883, was to agree on dividing the
into four time zones, with concord on accurate time within and between zones
made possible by telegraph.
|Close-up of gears at the clock face|
I am really sad that the fire station's fire horn no longer sounds at 12:10. I found that 125 dB electric horns and a control box could be purchased from SENTRY SIREN and installed at the mill complex, perhaps on the Clocktower or chimney.