|European 'copper' beech in July. Note top, in full sun, has|
more red tint than the lower part of the tree.
June 27, 2018 post.
In 2013, Jonathan R. Thompson* and co-authors from the Smithsonian Institute and other research organizations published an article “Four centuries of change in northeastern United States Forests.” The title incorporates a bit of rounding up, as the Pilgrims landed at what is now Plymouth in 1620, followed by much larger numbers of Puritans arriving 1630-1640. Tree choppers all. These were the colonists who believed that every tree deserved an axe.
|Two leaves from the same maple tree - darker from the sunny|
side, green from the shady side. Clink on photo to enlarge.
*Thompson JR, Carpenter DN, Cogbill CV, Foster DR. Four centuries of change in northeastern United States forests. PLoS One. 2013;8(9):e.72540. PMID:24023749.
**Buck S. The first American settlers cut down millions of trees to deliberately engineer climate change. https://timeline.com/american-settlers-climate-change-5b7b68bd9064.
Much of what Buck writes appears to be based on a 1998 book by James Roger Fleming "Historical Perspectives on Climate Change", which can be read on line at: https://books.google.com/books?id=09RtcSCGv7gC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false